The Musical Instrument Taxonomy B

Working Draft

Latest version:
http://purl.org/ontology/instrumenttaxonomy/ (RDF/XML, Turtle)
Last Update:
Date: 23:06:39 19/05/11 BST
Editors:
Sefki Kolozali, Centre for Digital Music, Queen Mary, University of London
Authors:
Sefki Kolozali, Centre for Digital Music, Queen Mary, University of London
George Fazekas, Centre for Digital Music, Queen Mary, University of London
Mathieu Barthet, Centre for Digital Music, Queen Mary, University of London
Contributors:
See Acknowledgements


Abstract

This study aims to investigate the knowledge representation issues of musical instruments on the Semantic Web, by taking various musical instrument classification schemes into account. This specification defines a taxonomy for musical instruments based on Jeremy Montagu and John Burton's classfication system.

Status of this Document

This is a work in progress and as such is subject to change. Comments are very welcome, please send them to First Author.

  1. Introduction
  2. Musical Instrument Taxonomy at Glance
  3. Cross-reference for NAME classes

Appendices

  1. References

1 Introduction

This study presents preliminary work on musical instruments ontology design, and investigates heterogeneity and limitations in existing instrument classification schemes. Numerous research to date aims at representing information about musical instruments. The works we examined are based on the well known Hornbostel and Sach's classification scheme. We developed representations using the Ontology Web Language (OWL), and compared terminological and conceptual heterogeneity using SPARQL queries. We found evidence to support that traditional designs based on taxonomy trees lead to ill-defined knowledge representation, especially in the context of an ontology for the Semantic Web. In order to overcome this issue, it is desirable to have an instrument ontology that exhibits a semantically rich structure. The following specification defines a taxonomy for musical instruments based on Jeremy Montagu and John Burton's classification system.

Musical Instrument Taxonomy at Glance

An alphabetical index of NAME terms, by class (concepts) are given below. All the terms are hyperlinked to their detailed description for quick reference.

Classes: Added_string_not_sounded, Added_strings_cannot_be_sounded_directly, Added_strings_occasionally_sounded, Adjustable, Aeolian_instruments, Aerophones, All_strings_playable, Amorphous, Angle_harps, Animal_horns, Balance_pedal, Bar, Baritone, Basket, Bass_Lute, Basses, Basshorn, Bassoon_Russe, Bent_back_peg_box, Biwa, Block, Blown, Board, Bone, Bow, Bow_harps, Bowed_wood, Bowl_with_skin_belly, Bowl_with_wood_belly, Bows, Box_with_skin_belly, Box_with_wood_belly, Buff, Bull_Roarers, Cello_picollo, Central_stave, Chanot, Chitarone, Choice_of_more_than_one_course, Chordophones, Circular_plan, Clay, Cobza, Coiled_Bark, Combination, Compartmented, Concussion, Conical, Cord, Cornet, Covered_alphorn, Cow_horn, Crook_Neck, Cylindrical, Double_Reeds, Double_bass, Double_course, Double_head, Double_lip_reed, Double_peg_box, Double_pitch, End_blown, Euphonium, External, Fiedeln, Finger_hole, Flugelhorn, Flutes, Folded, Folk_violin, Free_reeds, French_horns, Frontal_string_holder, Glass, Gourd, Harps, Helicon, Hollow, Horn, Idiophones, Internal, Inventionshorn, Ivory, Kazoos, Kettle, Laute, Lutes, Lyres, Mandoline, Manual_tram_handle, Mechanical, Membranophones, Metal, Midwinterhoorn, Modified_materials, Mollusca, Monochord, Multi_pellet, Multiple, Multiple_Bell, Musical_Instruments, Musical_bows, Naqqara, Narrow, Narrow_bore_tubas, Natural_horns, No_finger_hole, Non_adjustable, Non_frontal_string_holder, Non_tapper, Oliphant, On_a_tuba_with_finger_holes, One_note_per_reed, One_of_each, Open, Open_conoid, Organic, Other_material, Pair, Pandora, Percussion, Pipa, Piriform_plan, Plate, Plucked, Plucking_keyboard, Pochettes, Polyarcal_plan, Polychord, Polygonal_plan, Polyhedral_wood_belly, Ratchet_pedal, Reeds, Ribbon_Reeds, Rod, Rope, Rotating, Rozhok, Rubbed_with_keyboard, Rubbed_without_keyboard, Rubbing_keyboard, Savart, Saz, Screw, Screw_tension, Seed_pod, Seed_pod_single, Serpent, Sets, Shaken, Shofar, Side_blown, Silicate, Single, Single_Bell, Single_course, Single_head, Single_keyboard, Single_pellet, Single_reeds, Sitar, Solid, Solid_back, Some_of_each, Sousaphone, Spiked_bowl_skin_belly, Spiked_bowl_wood_belly, Spiked_tube_wood_belly, Split_Wood, Stainer, Stepped_Cone, Stepped_horns, Stick, Stone, Stopped, Stradivari, Straight, Straight_Neck, Straight_peg_box, Strigilated, Striking_keyboard, String_at_angle_to_spine, String_parallel_to_spine, String_vertical_to_spine, Strings_at_angle_to_spine, Strings_parallel_to_the_spine, Strings_vertical_to_spine, Struck, Sympathetic_instruments, Tambura, Tenor_cor, Tenor_horn, Tenor_violin, Terminal_crook, Theorbo, Three_keyboards, Timpani, Tin_can, Trombe, Trough, Trumpet, Tuba, Tube, Two_keyboards, Uncovered_Alphorn, Unmodified_natural_materials, Valve_trombone, Valved_bugles, Valved_posthorns, Valves, Vessel, Viola, Viola_pomposa, Violin, Violin_picollo, Violins, Violoncello, Viols, Waisted_plan, Wide, With_associate_resonator, With_both_fixed_and_movable_bridges, With_built_in_resonator, With_damping_keyboard, With_drones, With_finger_board_under_all_strings, With_finger_board_under_some_strings, With_fixed_bridges, With_movable_bridges, With_one_fixed_and_one_temporary_bridge, With_sounding_keyboard, Without_fingerboard, Without_keyboard, Without_resonator, Wood, Zink, Zithers,

4. Cross-reference for NAME classes and properties

Class: InstrumentOntology:Added_strings_cannot_be_sounded_directly

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Added_strings_cannot_be_sounded_directly

- These are strings which sound by sympathetic vibration.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Box_with_wood_belly

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Added_strings_occasionally_sounded

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Added_strings_occasionally_sounded

- These function mainly as sympathetic strings but can be, and occasionally are, sounded by the fingers (e.g., sitar and baryton) or the bow.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Box_with_wood_belly

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Angle_harps

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Angle_harps

- The angle between the string bearer and the surface of the belly is less than a right angle. Pillar harps are included here.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Bows
InstrumentOntology:Harps

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Balance_pedal

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Balance_pedal

- The pedal is held in any position by a balance-spring(e .g., the Ludwig system). There are a number of other mechanical systems, each of which would be a separate Species; these are the best known.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Timpani

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Basshorn

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Basshorn

- The many varieties have not been listed; whether the ophibarytons, the ophimonocle'ides and all the other French patent instruments should be separate genera is a matter for further debate. The Russian bassoon (to neither of which names it has any claim) seems sufficiently distinct, but it may well be that it should come under the previous head also.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Modified_materials

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Bent_back_peg_box

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Bent_back_peg_box

- A slight bending back, as on the guitar, is not a distinction; this counts as straight. What is intended is the sharp angle of the lute. A double peg-box may be (at Genus level) both straight and bent back; some lutes were theorboed in this fashion.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Piriform_plan

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Bow_harps

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Bow_harps

- This covers the various harps still retaining bow characteristics of shape of flexibility. The string carrier may be curved and rigid, carrying more than one string, the plane of the strings rising perpendicularly from the belly and the string termini one beyond the other along the surface of the belly (bow harps and arched harps) or a number of flexible string bearers may be attached to the one resonator (pluriarcs); the two groups are distinguished at class level.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Bows
InstrumentOntology:Harps

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Bowl_with_wood_belly

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Bowl_with_wood_belly

- This may be built of staves, hollowed from a block or be a natural gourd. A curved body without sides vertical to the plane of the belly is essential.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Bow
InstrumentOntology:Plucked

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Box_with_wood_belly

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Box_with_wood_belly

- A box may be built of slats or hollowed from a block. The sides must be approximately vertical to the plane of the belly. The back may be of any material and need not be flat (i.e., guitarra battente counts as box).

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Bow
InstrumentOntology:Plucked

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Circular_plan

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Circular_plan

- The full-face view of a lute seems a useful distinction. These lists are not meant to be exclusive or exhaustive.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Bowl_with_wood_belly

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Coiled_Bark

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Coiled_Bark

- There is no tube within the bark; the instrument normally only functions when freshly made.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:No_finger_hole

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Concussion

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Concussion

- Two, or occasionally more, equally sonorous objects, both or all of which sound on being struck together.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Struck

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Covered_alphorn

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Covered_alphorn

- This is a convenient term; there is no need for an alp to be involved. There is normally a definite difference between the two bore profiles cited. The uncovered alphorn is, in my experience, invariably narrow; if wide ones are found, separate genera should be used. It is known that in at least one area alphorns are made of metal, as substitute for the wooden variety. It is a matter for further discus- sion whether metal substitutes for other materials (and vice versa) should be included with their originals, or whether they should be divided by material.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Split_Wood

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Cylindrical

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Cylindrical

- It is the acoustical behavior, rather than the physical shape, which decides the category, though the one may be deduced from the other; a stepped cylinder is effectively conical and is so regarded. A cylindrical tube overblows alternate harmonics; a conical tube overblows all harmonics. Some latitude must be allowed, since instruments are seldom perfectly in tune; a possible border is whether the instrument can be lipped or blown into tune. With the longer instruments, the fundamental is frequently out of tune and the upper harmonics should be used as diagnostics. In a number of instruments, the bore is so slightly conical or is so irregular that intervals of ninths, tenths and elevenths are obtained between fundamental and first partial (e.g., the didjeridu); this is what is meant by amorphous. Experience shows that there is seldom any argument as to which group any instrument falls into.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Double_Reeds
InstrumentOntology:Double_lip_reed
InstrumentOntology:On_a_tuba_with_finger_holes
InstrumentOntology:Single_reeds

[back to top]

Class: InstrumentOntology:Double_Reeds

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Double_Reeds

- Two flexible lamellae strike periodically against each other; the air passes between them.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Reeds

[back to top]

Class: InstrumentOntology:Double_lip_reed

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Double_lip_reed

- The lips function as though they were reeds. It has been suggested that one lip and the mouthpiece may function as single reeds; normally, however, the lips function as double reeds; some research is necessary here

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Reeds

[back to top]

Class: InstrumentOntology:Double_pitch

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Double_pitch

- A turn valve is used to select one pitch or another (e.g., C/Bb trumpets). The double horn is not included because the transposing valve is placed and used as though it were another valve of normal type. The criterion is that a normal valve is spring controlled and returns to its original position when released, whereas a turn valve remains in the intended position once it is set, and does not have to be held in position by the finger.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Trombe

[back to top]

Class: InstrumentOntology:External

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#External

- Some hollow rattles (Sachs-Hornbostevle sselr attles)h ave pellets inside them; some have the pellets or other objects outside. The distinction between them seems more important to us than it did to Sachs and Hornbostel.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Hollow

[back to top]

Class: InstrumentOntology:Flutes

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Flutes

- The air passes across the aperture in a tube or vessel, the rigid edge of which causes it to eddy periodically

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Aerophones

[back to top]

Class: InstrumentOntology:Free_reeds

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Free_reeds

- Unlike other reeds, the free reed strikes neither against a solid body nor against a simulacrum of itself, but vibrates freely and periodically to and fro. When allied with a wind instrument, it is fitted in a frame so that the air is compelled to push it out of the way.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Reeds

[back to top]

Class: InstrumentOntology:Inventionshorn

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Inventionshorn

- This is crooked in the tuning slide; all horns with fixed mouthpipes, as distinct from crooks, are included here. The natural french horns will be similarly distinguished

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:French_horns

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Kettle

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Kettle

- The drum has a closed shell, the base of which may be pierced with a small air hole. A conical drum with an unusable membrane over the small end should be regarded as a kettle drum (e.g., Uganda).

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Membranophones

[back to top]

Class: InstrumentOntology:Lutes

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Lutes

- There is a rigid neck; the resonator is integral and the plane of the strings runs parallel to the surface of the belly and of the neck.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Chordophones

[back to top]

Class: InstrumentOntology:Lyres

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Lyres

- There is a yoke; the resonator is integral or attached (or even non-existant, but this is rare). The strings run parallel to the surface of the belly, where there is one and lie in the same plane as the arms of the yoke.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Chordophones

[back to top]

Class: InstrumentOntology:Manual_tram_handle

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Manual_tram_handle

- A single handle, similar to that used to drive a tram, operates on all tension points simultaneouslyT. he Dresdenm echanismi s an example

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Timpani

[back to top]

Class: InstrumentOntology:Mechanical

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Mechanical

- With valves or slides. Wagner's holztrompete had a valve, and there may be some others.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:End_blown
InstrumentOntology:Rubbed_without_keyboard

[back to top]

Class: InstrumentOntology:Midwinterhoorn

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Midwinterhoorn

- Once seen, this cannot be confused with the other instruments of this tribe.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Split_Wood

[back to top]

Class: InstrumentOntology:Monochord

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Monochord

- Speak for themselves. In some groups one must also distinguish between poly-idio- and poly-heterochord and between mono-idio- and mono-heterochord and, for the valiha if no other, polyidio-polyhetero-chord.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Adjustable

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Multiple

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Multiple

- These seem peculiar to South America and are panpipes which are trumpeted rather than fluted. The Indian paired trumpets are conical and are either metal or mollusca, so belong elsewhere

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Cylindrical

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Multiple_Bell

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Multiple_Bell

- Sax, again, as well as others, produced a number of instruments of this type. Also included here are the instruments with one open and one closed bell, such as the echo cornet.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Valves

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Musical_bows

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Musical_bows

- The string bearer is flexible.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Bows
InstrumentOntology:Harps

[back to top]

Class: InstrumentOntology:Naqqara

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Naqqara

- In the Recueil des travaux de Congre'sd e MusiqueA rabe there is a photographo f a pairo f naqqaraw ith full Dresdent ram-handlem echanism. The head diameters appear to be about six inches.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Screw_tension

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Natural_horns

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Natural_horns

- These are horns to which no work is done save removing the tip or piercing a hole in the side. External decoration may be distinguished at a lower level. Both oliphant and shofar are extensively worked before they are used, and so are distinguished at this level.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Animal_horns

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Class: InstrumentOntology:On_a_tuba_with_finger_holes

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#On_a_tuba_with_finger_holes

- A hole the covering or uncovering of which produces an alteration of pitch. Holes which need to be covered before the instrument will speak (as on the Asian mouth organ) are not to be regarded as finger holes, nor may the open end (e.g., of a holeless flute) be regarded as a fingerhole, even though a different pitch is produced by closing it; the same applies to the bell of a horn or conch. The thumb is included among the fingers and the fingers may be mechanically extended; the holes of an ophicle'ide are regarded as finger holes despite the fact that they are covered by keys; this will be a further criterion below, under system, etc.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Free_reeds

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Open_conoid

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Open_conoid

- Bell shaped; deer hoofs, bird beaks, etc. Bells themselves have not yet been discussed; if clapper bells count as shaken, what of those where the clapper is moved and the bell is not?

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Shaken

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Organic

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Organic

- Both animal and vegetable products.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Concussion
InstrumentOntology:Percussion

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Percussion

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Percussion

- Sonorous objects which are struck with a (permanently or temporarily) nonsonorous object; only the struck object sounds.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Struck

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Piriform_plan

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Piriform_plan

- Implies approximately pear-shaped; lutes and sitars, etc.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Bowl_with_wood_belly

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Pochettes

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Pochettes

- Some forms of the dancing master's kit appear at this point. Those which do should be distinguished at Species level between viol shape, violin shape, guitar shape, etc. The rare pochette d'amour will come under a different sub-Family.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:All_strings_playable

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Polyarcal_plan

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Polyarcal_plan

- Implies any number of curved sides; festooned is the normal English term; polyarcal is preferred since the meaning may be calculated

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Bowl_with_wood_belly

[back to top]

Class: InstrumentOntology:Polygonal_plan

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Polygonal_plan

- Implies any number of straight sides.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Bowl_with_wood_belly

[back to top]

Class: InstrumentOntology:Polyhedral_wood_belly

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Polyhedral_wood_belly

- This may be built up of slats or hollowed from a block, but each slat must be more or less flat and either none may be vertical to the plane of the belly or there must be more than three sides plus belly (exs. are the balalaika and the boat-shaped pochette).

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Bow
InstrumentOntology:Plucked

[back to top]

Class: InstrumentOntology:Ratchet_pedal

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Ratchet_pedal

- The pedal is held in any position by a ratchet (e.g., the Leedy system).

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Timpani

[back to top]

Class: InstrumentOntology:Rozhok

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Rozhok

- This is included to represent all the folk instruments of this type (folk zink); each is usually sufficiently distinct, both in origin and pattern, to be a separate Genus.' For this reason, there is no need for ageographical division; this is implicit in the naming of the instrument. Equally, there is seldom any importance in the geographical origin of European art instruments; it is the type that matters. The fact that it is a German system clarinet is more important than that it was made in Czechoslovakia.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Modified_materials

[back to top]

Class: InstrumentOntology:Rubbed_with_keyboard

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Rubbed_with_keyboard

- These are the nyckelharpa (bow) and vielle a roue (mechanical

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Polychord

[back to top]

Class: InstrumentOntology:Rubbing_keyboard

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Rubbing_keyboard

- An example is the Nurnberg geigenwerk. There is a clear distinction between a keyboard which, whether by striking or plucking a string or drawing it to a wheel, causes it to sound, and a keyboard which alters the length of a string which is already sounding and so alters its pitch (e.g., the vielle a roue).

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:With_sounding_keyboard

[back to top]

Class: InstrumentOntology:Serpent

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Serpent

- As suggested below, it may be necessary to make provision for the occasional serpent and basshorn of metal, rather than grouping them with the key-bugle and the ophicle'ide, from which they are quite distinct.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Modified_materials

[back to top]

Class: InstrumentOntology:Shaken

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Shaken

- Some rattles are percussive and some concussive; since the action of shaking is common to all, this seems a more useful distinction. Whether drums sounded in this way should be included here has not yet been

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Idiophones

[back to top]

Class: InstrumentOntology:Single_reeds

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Single_reeds

- One flexible lamella strikes periodically against a solid (i.e., non-flexible) block. The block is usually chambered and the air passes between the lamella and the edges of the block.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Reeds

[back to top]

Class: InstrumentOntology:Spiked_tube_wood_belly

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Spiked_tube_wood_belly

- A tube may be circular or polygonal in section, but the length should be greater than the radius; the various sections should be distinguished at family level. The back of the tube is normally open, or, at the most, partly occluded by a pierced septum; should it be closed, this also should be distinguished. The banjo should probably be regarded as a circular section box rather than as a short tube; hence the length/radius qualification. It may be desirable to add further families with regard to finger-boards. In this connection, a neck on which the fingers rest while stopping the strings sideways (e.g., with the nail) cannot be regarded as a It may also be necessary to mention frets, where there are fingerboards, and to distinguish whether these are fixed (e.g., guitar), tied (e.g., lute) or moveable (e.g., sitar).

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Plucked

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Split_Wood

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Split_Wood

- A piece of wood is split, gouged and reunited, or the same effect is achieved from two separate pieces of wood. Also included are instruments built up of slats or staves.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:No_finger_hole

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Stepped_Cone

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Stepped_Cone

- This is normally of bamboo, a series of internodes fitting each into the one below.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:No_finger_hole

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Stepped_horns

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Stepped_horns

- Two or more horns are inserted, each into the one above.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Animal_horns

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Stradivari

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Stradivari

- These are some of the main types of violin. Those expert in the field may well wish to introduce further species to distinguish between instruments which appear similar to the untutored eye; the latter may be content with a group which is more or less Strad and another which is more or less Stainer. It must be clearly understood that the maker is not important at this point, but merely the type and the pattern.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Violins

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Strigilated

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Strigilated

- Strigilation may be rapid or slow and these instruments are later divided accordingly. Rapid strigilation is friction and includes such instruments as nail violins, glass harmonicas and the livika. Slow strigilation covers such instruments as ratchets, scraped gourds and wash-board

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Idiophones

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Tin_can

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Tin_can

- When a tin is taken, filled with pellets and shaken, it would seem that it can be regarded as a separate material. Other re-used containers could be similarlyd istinguishedo, r could come undert his head, appropriately renamed.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Multi_pellet

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Trombe

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Trombe

- This includes both normal and large (trombone) trumpets.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Single_Bell

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Valved_bugles

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Valved_bugles

- These are the products of fertile 19th century imaginations, spurred by the rewards of successful patent piracy. The distinction is a matter of bore profile; we are as yet divided upon its validity. Montagu thinks it workable, but Burton feels that, although there are many instruments clearly on one side or the other, there are too many doubtful cases in the middle for this to succeed.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Single_Bell

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Valved_posthorns

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Valved_posthorns

- These are the products of fertile 19th century imaginations, spurred by the rewards of successful patent piracy. The distinction is a matter of bore profile; we are as yet divided upon its validity. Montagu thinks it workable, but Burton feels that, although there are many instruments clearly on one side or the other, there are too many doubtful cases in the middle for this to succeed.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Single_Bell

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Vessel

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Vessel

- The body is a vessel rather than a tube; the only orifices are the embouchure and finger holes. The acoustical effect is that finger holes are effective according to their area, not to their position.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Flutes
InstrumentOntology:Hollow

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Violin

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Violin

- Even with the fifth string, there is no doubt but that a viola pomposa is a viola and a violoncello piccolo a 'cello (nor, pace Sachs, can the two be confused). Care should be taken to distinguish,o r to attempt to distinguish, b etween the violino piccolo and the three-quartesri ze violin.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Stradivari

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Class: InstrumentOntology:With_built_in_resonator

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#With_built_in_resonator

- Save where zither and resonator are found together, or where there is previous knowledge, it will not always be possible to distinguish between those with associated resonator and those without resonator. This is a sub-Class and, where there is doubt, the column may be ignored. The resonator is built-in when any other part of the instrument has to be removed, or when glued or otherwise fastened joints must be broken to dismount it. If it can be unscrewed or untied, it should still be regarded as built-on. Associated means two separate pieces used together or loosely attached to each other by a bit of string or amplifier wire, etc.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Polychord

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Class: InstrumentOntology:With_drones

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#With_drones

- These are strings which are sounded continually, or more or less continually (e.g., sitar) but whose length is not varied (e.g., crwth and lira da braccio). They should not be confused with added basses for providingt he fundamentalo f a chord( e.g., theorbo and chitarrone).

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Box_with_wood_belly

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Class: InstrumentOntology:With_fixed_bridges

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#With_fixed_bridges

- A bridge is a cut-off bar which fixes the length of the string both physically and acoustically. A 'temporary bridge' is one that may be applied to a string to give it a definite length in the above sense which was previosuly lacking. The clavichord is an example; the strings have an acoustic length only when in contact with the tangent, which is thus a temporary bridge. Moveable bridges will normally be in addition to the two fixed bridges which are acoustically necessary; an example is the koto. Instruments with only moveable bridges are rare, but an example is the polyidiochord valiha, which is tuned by moving two wedges which also function as bridges.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Without_fingerboard

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Without_fingerboard

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Without_fingerboard

- As far as zithers are concerned, these are boards to which the string can be pressed to alter its effective length. There are normally, but not invariably, frets and further orders can be introduced, if necessary, to show this and the type of frets.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:With_built_in_resonator

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Zink

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Zink

- The word Cornett is best avoided to obviate confusion.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Modified_materials

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Class: InstrumentOntology:Zithers

URI: http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/2011/3/Jeremy_Montagu.owl#Zithers

- The plane of the strings runs parallel to the surface of a stick, tube, trough (or where the surface would be if it had one) or board. There is no separate neck. A raft zither is a permanent agglomeration of stick/tube zithers.

sub-class-of:
InstrumentOntology:Chordophones

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References

Jeremy Montagu and John Burton. A proposed new system for musical instruments. Society for Ethnomusicology, 15:49–70, 1971.

Sefki Kolozali, George Fazekas, Mathieu Barthet, Mark Sandler. Knowledge representation issues in musical instrument ontology design. 12th International Society for Music Information Retrieval Conference (ISMIR 2011), 465–470, 2011.

Acknowledgements

This work is part of the Ontology-driven Music Retrieval and Annotation Sharing service 2 (OMRAS 2) and Networked Environment for Music Analysis (NEMA) projects, and supported by EPSRC grant EP/E017614/1 at the Centre for Digital Music Queen Mary University of London.